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(Wolf Spitz)
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Form and Function

The Keeshond is a square-proportioned, sturdy dog of Northern type. An all-purpose dog, the Keeshond is a generalist rather than a specialist, and the physical build reflects this. The gait of the Keeshond is distinctive: clean, bold, and brisk, with only slight to moderate reach and drive. The long straight harsh outer coat stands off from the body, with a good mane and a thick downy undercoat. These impart superb insulation from cold and damp.


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Breed Traits

Energy Level

3 out of 5

Exercise Requirements

3 out of 5


3 out of 5

Affection Level

5 out of 5

Friendliness To Dogs

3 out of 5

Friendliness To Other Pets

4 out of 5

Friendliness To Strangers

4 out of 5


1 out of 5

Ease of Training

3 out of 5

Grooming Requirements

3 out of 5

Heat Sensitivity

4 out of 5


5 out of 5

Breed Attributes




35-45 lb





Area of Origin

The Netherlands

Date of Origin


Other Names

Wolf Spitz


The Keeshond (plural: Keeshonden) is one of the family of spitz dogs, although its exact origin is undocumented. The breed seems to have been well established in Holland at least since the eighteenth century as a companion and watchdog. The breed later became known as the barge dog because dogs were often kept as a watchdog on the small vessels navigating the Rhine River. By a stroke of fate, the breed became entangled in the political events of Holland in the years preceding the French Revolution. The leader of the Patriot faction was a man named Kees de Gyselaer, who in turn owned a barge dog named Kees. The dog Kees appeared in so many political cartoons that he and his breed—a dog of the people—became the symbol of the Patriots. Unfortunately for the Keeshond, the Patriots did not prevail, and many Keeshond owners disposed of their dogs lest they be identified with the losing party. To make things worse for the Keeshond, the barges that floated the Rhine became larger, and the small Keeshond became less favored as a barge dog. Nonetheless, the breed did survive, although with a low profile, through the efforts of a few loyal river boatmen and farmers. In 1920, the Baroness van Hardenbroek began an effort to rescue the surviving members. She was so successful at winning friends for the breed that the Keeshond was in England by 1925. AKC recognition soon followed in 1930. So much did the Keeshond recover, the breed is now the national dog of Holland.


The Keeshond combines many traits of the best housedogs: fairly energetic and playful, very attentive and loving, and ready for adventure yet content to take it easy. This breed is sensitive and learns readily. The Keeshond makes a good companion for a child or adult. Friendly to all, this dog is nonetheless an alert watchdog inside the home.


This is a lively breed that can have its exercise needs met with moderate exercise. A good walk on leash, combined with a vigorous game, can satisfy exercise needs. The double coat needs brushing once or twice weekly, and more when shedding.


  • Major concerns: none
  • Minor concerns: CHD, epilepsy, skin problems, patellar luxation, elbow dysplasia
  • Occasionally seen: renal cortical hypoplasia, tetralogy of Fallot, mitral valve insufficiency
  • Suggested tests: hip, knee, elbow, eye
  • Life span: 12–14 years


Note: While the characteristics mentioned here may frequently represent this breed, dogs are individuals whose personalities and appearances will vary. Please consult the adoption organization for details on a specific pet.

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