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Intestinal Parasites CAN INFECT HUMANS WITH SERIOUS CONSEQUENCES
Roundworms and Hookworms
Most pet owners do not know their pets may carry worms capable of infecting people.8 Infected dogs contaminate their surroundings by passing eggs in feces. People acquire roundworm and hookworm infections by coming into contact with an environment contaminated with eggs or larvae.
It is important to clean up pet feces on a regular basis to remove potentially infective eggs before they spread through the environment. Eggs in the environment can remain infective for years.8
Children are more likely to become infected in part because they are more apt to play in contaminated areas or put dirty objects in their mouths. Almost 73% of pediatricians in the US reported cases of children with parasitic infection.9
Roundworm Infection In Humans
The incidence of human infection with zoonotic intestinal parasites is significant. According to a 2008 study conducted by the CDC, overall roundworm prevalence in humans is 13.9% in the United States.10
Roundworm infection can cause morbidity in humans, however many roundworm infections remain asymptomatic and therefore remain underdiagnosed and underappreciated.10
Once inside a human, roundworms may migrate to areas of the body other than the intestine. This may make the disease more severe depending on the migration path and destination of the roundworms. When they migrate to the eye, they can impair vision or cause permanent blindness. These “wandering roundworms” can also damage the liver, heart and lungs in humans.
Hookworm Infection In Humans
Hookworms are unique in their ability to penetrate human skin. When people come into contact with contaminated soil, infective larvae can pass through a person’s skin and begin a prolonged migration under the skin, causing a painful, itchy rash. Some species of hookworms can penetrate deeper tissues. In rare cases, hookworm larvae may migrate to the intestine, causing an inflammatory response.11
8) Guidelines for Veterinarians: Prevention of Zoonotic Transmission of Ascarids and Hookworms of Dogs and Cats. Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in cooperation with the American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists. Document available at www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/roundworm/roundworm.htm. Accessed November 8, 2010.
9) Thomblison P. Pets, worms and little people. Contemporary Pediatrics. September 2003.
10) Won KY, Kruszon-Moran D, Schantz PM and Jones JL. National Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Zoonotic Toxocara spp. Infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2008; 79(4):552-557.
11) Prociv P. Zoonotic Hookworm Infections. In: Palmer SR, Soulsby EJL, Simpson DIH, eds. Zoonoses. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1998:805.